Selected Bibliography Alt A. Di Segni L. Eusebius, Onomastikon, ed. Fedalto G. Georgius Cyprius, Descriptio orbis Romani, ed. Glucker C. Series , Oxford, Isaac B. Meimaris Y. Sartre M. Schmitt G. Seigne J. Tsafrir Y. Greek papyri, ed. Lewis; Aramaic and Nabatean signatures and subscriptions, eds. Yadin and J. Greenfield, Jerusalem, Krueger, Berlin, Nobbe, Leipzig, Hildesheim, Maps and Gazetteer, Jerusalem, In contrast to the Judaean desert and the deserts of Sinai and the Negev, in which there was only a sparse population of nomads, the area of Gaza was and still is densely settled.
Its inhabitants throughout the generations have made use of ancient sites, including monasteries, as a source of building stones. The poor preservation of the remains poses a considerable challenge to the archaeologist attempting to identify, as far as possible, the location of the monasteries of Gaza. To the 1 M. Bitton-Ashkelony and A. See also D. I am grateful to the Palestinian archaeologist Yasser Khassouna, who permitted me to visit this important site with its impressive remains.
The monastery near Khirbet Jemameh was excavated in the s. See R. Gophna and N. The distribution of the monasteries connected with Gaza may be divided into three geographical circles: an inner circle with a radius of some 15 km from Gaza that contains most of the monasteries known to us by their historical names, an intermediate circle encompassing the farther periphery of the city up to 25 km , and an outer circle containing the monasteries of the Negev. Though the latter are situated beyond the territory of Gaza, it appears that, at least from the historical point of view, the influence of Gaza on them was dominant.
The first describes the historical-geographical background of the monasteries of Gaza. The second, and longest part presents a survey of the monasteries located in the three circles relative to the city of Gaza. The third part discusses the character of Gazan monasticism as reflected by the geographical location of the monasteries and their archaeological remains.
The Historical-Geographical Background Gaza is located in an area that is transitional between the temperate Mediterranean and the arid desert. The present summary does not include the monasteries of the Negev that were founded next to churches in the middle of settlements, such as the North Church at Shivta and the North Church at Nessana, but relates exclusively to monasteries that were located on the margins of rural settlements or outside them.
The conditions in this area change drastically toward the south and the east. Thus, for instance, Gaza enjoys ca. The geography of the area is dictated by two sandstone ridges running parallel to the coast and a valley 2—3 km wide between them. The highway formed junctions with land routes running from the Negev and the deserts of Transjordan. The Gaza Region The two ridges that form the Gaza Strip are of great importance in the scheme of the landscape.
The western ridge, 40—60 m above sea level and bordering the shore, is largely covered by sand dunes. The eastern ridge is higher 80— m and constitutes an effective barrier to the encroachment of sand dunes. The only watercourse that succeeds in crossing both ridges on its way to the sea is Nahal Besor Wadi Ghazzeh. This is a watercourse of impressive proportions: its drainage basin is larger than 3, km2 and includes Hebron and the Negev highlands. Though torrential floods rage in the watercourse each winter, it does not breach the ridges in a straight line but meanders for a distance of some 20 km, creating a landscape of imposing cliffs in the process.
The other watercourses reaching the region from the east are unsuccessful in breaching the sandstone ridges. In the area of Deir el-Balah, for instance, a seasonal lake is created each year several hundred from D. Yitzhaki, Jerusalem, , pp. Orni and E. Efrat, Geography of Israel, Jerusalem, , pp. This phenomenon has a decisive impact on the groundwater of the area.
In the area of Gaza some private wells enable the irrigation of a large area of about 55, acres , 00 dunams. The abundance of water, the fertile soil brought as alluvium by the floods, and the temperate climate make the area extremely fruitful. To this day, the region of Gaza is a blend of orchards, fields of wheat and barley, vegetable gardens, vineyards, and groves of olive, almond, and palm trees.
Between the date palms of Deir el-Balah are fields of wheat and barley, increasing the agricultural potential of the land Fig. The waters of Gaza are rich in fish or were before the construction of the Aswan Dam in Egypt , and fishing provides an important source of income to the region. Part of the western Negev, it extends over a large area some km2 between Gaza and Beersheva from west to east, and between Buriron Kibbutz Beror Hayil and Elusa from north to south. This is an alluvial plain covered with loess and sandy soils at an elevation of 60—80 m above sea level Fig.
To the north of the plain is an area of gentle hills reaching an elevation of about m above sea level. Along its course are numerous oases, nourished by the winter floods. Shallow wells 5—6 m deep that have been dug along the watercourse at various points comprise an important source of water for the flocks of the Bedouin who live in the area. The loess that characterizes the area is easily cultivated. It consists of dust that is carried over considerable distances and creates a light brown soil that is friable and free of stones. The loess is covered by a thin layer of sand, a combination that is beneficial to agriculture since the layer of sand permits the percolation of rain and prevents evaporation.
The sandy loess covers the plain and the hills to its north, endowing the area with considerable agricultural potential. In its northern part the annual rainfall is — mm, enabling the cultivation of winter grain crops without irrigation. In contrast, the precipitation in the southern part of the region, which declines to — mm annually, does not permit the cultivation of field crops. The aridity border is not a permanent feature but shifts in accordance with global climatic changes that influence the region.
Thus, for instance, a negative change is presently taking place: long periods of drought have moved the aridity border northward to the area between Ascalon and Kiryat Gat. On the other hand, in the Byzantine period, which was more humid, the aridity border moved southward to the area between Deir el-Balah and Elusa.
Its proximity to the sea gives it a temperate climate. Gentle winds 20 km per hour from the northwest generally prevail. Another feature that is beneficial to agriculture is the dew, which is the most abundant in Palestine. The number of dewy nights is — per year, and the annual precipitation of dew sometimes exceeds the rainfall. The combination of rainfall and dew made possible the consistent cultivation of grain and fruit trees of various kinds.
The climatic changes in the late Roman period had a dramatic effect throughout the Mediterranean basin. See N. Issar and N. Brown, Dordrecht, , pp.
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On mm as the aridity border, see Orni and Efrat, Geography of Israel, p. Gazit has counted some seventy large settlements with an area of more than 50 dunams in the Besor region to the east of Gaza. See D. The section of the map between Gaza and Elusa shows seven large villages and provincial towns Fig. In the Byzantine period this road served Christian pilgrims bound for the monastery of St.
Catherine in Sinai;14 it was, for example, the route from Jerusalem to Sinai taken by the pilgrim known as Antoninus of Placentia and his companions in When they arrived in Gaza, the company enjoyed excellent hospitality. They are welcoming to strangers. Since the Byzantine period was more humid, the limit of the area in which a winter grain crop could be cultivated moved southward to the area of Elusa. This information, noted in passing by Antoninus of Placentia, supports the assumption 11 On the section of the Madaba map that depicts the area between Gaza and Elusa, see M.
On the flourishing of villages in the Gaza region in the Byzantine period, see J. Humbert, Paris, , p. Wilkinson, Jerusalem Pilgrims, Jerusalem, , p. The Monasteries The historical sources and the archaeological finds reveal a rich and detailed picture of some fifteen monasteries that were founded in the territory of the city of Gaza in the Byzantine period fourth to seventh centuries CE. I have used the summary of D. Chitty and the more recent study of B.
Kofsky 17 to prepare a list of the monasteries in the first of the circles noted above, in the chronological order of their foundation the monasteries of the second and third circles appear in geographical order. A chronological order is preferable in my view to other options, such as the alphabetical order used in the list published by S. The Inner Circle The inner circle, close to the city of Gaza, comprises ca. Their assumed location is based on a combination of historical, geographical and archaeological data.
Their historical names are taken from the map of Palestine in the Roman period published by Y. Green in ;19 the Arabic names are from the map of Palestine published by the British mandatory authorities in The Monastery of Hilarion Identification. An eremitic monastery in the area of Deir el-Balah, founded in ca. Historical background. Di Segni, and J. After returning from Egypt, where he had learned the principles of Christianity from St. Antony, Hilarion settled in a hut on the seashore and lived there in seclusion for twenty two years.
Later, during the reign of Constantius — , Hilarion founded an hermitage there, and by the time he was sixty-three years old the monastery was large and attracted numerous visitors. Seasonal lakes form in Deir el-Balah each winter when the seasonal floods fail to breach the sandstone ridge and reach the sea. Archaeological data. Sozomen composed his work in about See Figueras, From Gaza to Pelusium, p.
The Monastery of Bethelea Identification. An eremitic center in the vicinity of Beit Lahia to the northeast of Gaza, founded in ca. Testimony on the existence of an eremitic cluster near the village of Bethelea is sparse. Near the village, according to Sozomen, lived four anchorites Salamines, Phuscon, Malachion, and Crispion , who were the principal disciples of Hilarion. Bethelea is identified with Beit Lahia about 6 km northeast of Gaza map ref. Bagatti, Antichi villaggi cristiani di Giudea e Neghev, Jerusalem, , pp.
Conder and H. See G. According to F. Abel, close to Bethelea are two ancient mounds containing potsherds of the Roman-Byzantine period and fragments of columns: F. A monastery near Horvat Gerarit on the north bank of Nahal Besor, founded in ca. Silvanus, a native of Palestine, was the head of a small community of twelve monks at Scetis in Egypt. Following the incursion of barbarians into Egypt in CE, Silvanus and his disciples moved to Sinai. The site is located about 10 km south of Gaza, close to the course of Nahal Besor map ref. The remains of a basilical church with a mosaic pavement were uncovered here in the past.
About 0. The location of the site and its components a church with adjacent structures enable one to surmise, purely as a hypothesis, that this is the core of the eremitic monastery that Silvanus founded in the area. Porath of the Israel Antiquities Authority. The church was of the basilical type, with a nave and one or two aisles, though the southern aisle and part of the nave had been destroyed by floods.
In addition, most of the walls of the church had been plundered for secondary use of the ancient stones. The polychrome mosaic floor of the northern aisle was better preserved. It was decorated with geometric motifs and crosses. At the eastern end of the aisle, close to the bema, an inscription in a medallion 1 m in diameter was discovered. The inscription relates that the mosaic was laid in the days of Misael, Zecharias, and Alphaeus in the year of the era of Gaza—i. According to Porath, the inscription probably relates to renovation of the church rather than its foundation.
Half of the western cistern, about 17 m from the church, had been washed away by floods, leaving it hanging from the cliff Fig. Near the cistern were the remains of walls; and in 37 J. Porath for making the results of his excavation available to me, and for permitting me to study the remains in the field.
The inscription was read by V. Tzaferis of the Antiquities Authority. A new reading by L. Di Segni of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem is published in this volume. According to Di Segni, the absence from the inscription of a hegumen, the abbot of a monastery indicates that the church was not part of a monastic complex. The second cistern is about 4 m east of the apse of the church, indicating that the church was part of a larger complex of buildings.
The Monastery of Zeno Identification. An hermitage in Kefar Shearta south of Gaza, founded in ca. Since he settled in Kefar Shearta only toward the end of his life, it is likely that the hermitage that bore his name was founded no earlier than When he arrived in Kefar Shearta he was already renowned as a holy man and received admirers who turned to him for spiritual guidance.
This is a region of loess soil that is cultivated to this day for grain crops, mostly wheat and barley. To the north of the site runs an ancient local road in a generally east-west direction. The site extends over two hills Fig. On the surface are scattered thousands of 41 This identification, which seems unavoidable because of the name, was suggested in the late nineteenth century.
This work was written in the early sixth century. See John Rufus, Plerophoriae, ed. Nau PO 8 , Paris, It seems likely that this area of about 3. On the western hill, about m from the eastern one, grows a tamarisk tree of great age with remains of an ancient building beside it Fig.
Next to the structure is a round cistern 3. This is the typical Byzantine cistern of the area: its walls are built of small fieldstones 10—20 cm bonded by white lime mortar and coated with a thick layer 1—2 cm of reddish hydraulic plaster. Its estimated capacity is 40—50 cubic meters. In addition to the Byzantine cistern, fragments of pottery and glass vessels of the Byzantine period, ashlars of the local sandstone, mosaic tesserae in black, red, and white, fragments of marble panels of varying thickness, and a fragment of a basin made from red granite were found.
Two additional cisterns were preserved in the saddle between the hills. On the basis of these finds, it may be assumed that the structure on the western hill, which probably included a church, was a monastery. From its proximity to the site identified with Kefar Shearta one may conclude, again purely as a hypothesis, that this was the hermitage cell of Zeno, the holy man of the desert. The Monastery of Abba Isaiah Identification.
A coenobium near Beth Dallatha southwest of Gaza, founded in ca. Abba Isaiah was one of the most important figures in the history of Gazan monasticism. He began his career as a monk in Egypt in a coenobium and subsequently became a hermit in the desert. It thus appears that the monastery was founded in ca. From the Plerophoriae it seems that the monastery was a coenobium. The Monastery of Peter the Iberian Identification. An eremitic monastery near Maiumas west of Gaza, founded as a laura in ca. The Life of Peter the Iberian tells of Peter and his friend John, who joined a small eremitic monastery near Maiumas, the port of Gaza.
During this period the two maintained a close connection with Zeno in Kefar Shearta. After the Council of Chalcedon in , Peter left for Egypt and from there returned to the area of Ascalon, to a place called Peleia. After this Peter lived for three or four years at Migdal Thabatha, south of Gaza, then in a hut on the seashore near Azotos Ashdod , and finally on the imperial estate of Eudocia at Jamnia Yavne. During this period Peter refused to return to the old monastery near Maiumas. Theodore of Ascalon had joined the monastic community at Maiumas and was eventually appointed its head.
In the following year the monastery was expanded and converted from a laura to a coenobium. Raabe, Leipzig, Petri Ib. Among others, it mentions such elements as a wall and tower, a courtyard and well, a church, and a structure that served as a meeting place for the community apparently a refectory. The Monastery of Severus Identification. Severus lived in a laura near Maiumas west of Gaza, founded in ca.
Severus was a disciple of Peter the Iberian. In the Life of Severus by Zacharias Rhetor, it is related that Severus, after he received a substantial inheritance, purchased a monastery, reorganized it, and built new cells. Later, in Severus left Palestine and in he was appointed patriarch of Antioch. John Moschus, in the early seventh century, mentions a laura in the region of Gaza, which may well be the laura founded by Severus between Gaza and Maiumas. Kugener PO 2, 1 , Paris, Migne, PG On Gaza Maiumas, see Bagatti, Villaggi, pp. The exact location of the monastery is unknown.
The Monastery of Seridus Identification. The monastery at Thabatha named after Seridus was founded in the days of Justin I — The monastery was located south of Nahal Besor Wadi Ghazzeh , as we learn from the writings of Dorotheus, who lived in the monastery of Seridus. Dorotheus relates that the watercourse to the north of the monastery burst its banks and prevented one of the monks from reaching his destination in Ascalon. On this evidence, one may propose that the monastery of Seridus should be identified with the imposing remains recently exposed at Deir e-Nuserat, about 1 km south of Thabatha and about 2 km south of Nahal Besor map ref.
The excavation uncovered remains of a large and splendid coenobium. Within the walls of the monastery was a courtyard surrounded by halls and numerous rooms. Among them may be identified a church with a crypt below, a bathhouse, and a hospice. The church had a polychrome mosaic pavement, and 56 On the monastery of Seridus and its spiritual leaders, Barsanuphius and John, see Chitty, The Desert, pp. Regrault and J. The Monastery of Dorotheus Identification. A coenobium between Gaza and Maiumas, founded in ca. Dorotheus corresponded with Barsanuphius and John at the monastery of Seridus.
A native of Antioch, he died in the eighties of the sixth century. He joined the monastery of Seridus and lived there for nine years, first serving as gatekeeper and supervisor of the hospice, and later founding an infirmary to which he transferred his library. To sum up, the identification of eight monasteries in the close vicinity of Gaza, known to us mainly from the sources, enables us to point to two main characteristics. First, this is a dense group of monasteries; five of them are concentrated to the southwest of Gaza on both banks of Nahal Besor, and another three are northwest of Gaza, between the city and Maiumas on the coast.
The average distance between monasteries is only about 3 km, a distance that could be walked in a few hours. This physical proximity undoubtedly contributed to the social cohesion of the monks and personal acquaintance between them. Second, the monasteries of Gaza are located in the heart of what was a densely settled rural area. The proximity of the monasteries to the villages is expressed in their names—e. Some, like the monastery of Zeno, were located within a village or on its margin.
This conforms with the descriptions of Gazan monasticism in the sources, 59 Hirschfeld, Judean Desert Monasteries, pp. The Intermediate Circle The intermediate circle see Fig. Khirbet Jemameh Identification. A coenobium dated to the sixth century. The monastery is west of Kibbutz Ruhama, about 20 km east of Gaza map ref. About m southwest of the monastery is Khirbet Jemameh, which contains remains of a village of the Byzantine period. This is a fertile region of gentle loess hills that are intensively cultivated, mainly for field crops wheat and barley and orchards Fig.
The monastery was discovered and excavated in by R.
The complex is not large, measuring only about 25 x 30 m ca. The walls were built of mud bricks on stone foundations and consequently are preserved to a maximum height of only 0. From the entrance, a wide corridor 2. Below the center of the courtyard is a rectangular cistern 3 x 4. Two additional cisterns were found outside the monastery. In the northern part of the courtyard was the entrance to a subterranean burial crypt Fig.
The crypt comprises 62 On the role of the holy man in rural society in Late Antiquity, see P. The excavation of the crypt revealed a number of skulls and six oil lamps dating from the end of the Byzantine period late sixth to early seventh centuries. The church is located to the east of the courtyard. It consists of a latitudinal prayer hall whose long sides are oriented north-south, with an apse facing the east. The mosaic pavement of the prayer hall is decorated with fine geometric and floral designs Fig.
The northern wing includes a large hall 3. Beside the hall was a small room, possibly a kitchen.
The structure had an upper story, as attested by the staircase preserved near the church. In the northwestern corner of the complex were a room paved with mosaics and another room that functioned as a stable. To the south of the entrance corridor a large rectangular hall width 5 m and estimated length From its dimensions one may assume that this was the dormitory in which the monks slept, as was the common practice in coenobia of the Byzantine period.
The pottery finds of the last phase date from the late sixth and early seventh centuries. In light of the total absence of finds from the early Arab period, the excavators assume that the monastery was destroyed during the Muslim conquest of For the custom of sleeping in dormitories, see Hirschfeld, Judean Desert Monasteries, pp. A church or monastery of the fifth—sixth centuries.
The tel, whose summit is at an elevation of m above sea level, rises to a height of about 15 m above its surroundings. In the nearby watercourse are several springs. The site was excavated in the years — under the direction of E. To the north of the structure was a drainage system consisting of stone-built channels and a plastered collection pool. The pottery finds dated from the fifth to sixth centuries. Publication of the results of the excavation will undoubtedly clarify the question of whether the structure was a church or a monastery.
Kissufim—the Monastery of St. Elias Identification. A church according to an inscription of the late sixth century. The site is located about 1 km south of Tell Jemmeh, in the fields of Kibbutz Kissufim, about 15 km south of Gaza map ref. Some m northeast of the site winds the broad valley of Nahal Besor, and to the northwest is a well known in Arabic as Bir Abu Mandil. The site was excavated in under the direction of R.
According to Oren, the well-preserved remains of a bathhouse of the Byzantine period were discovered at the southern end of the tel. Consequently, the discovery of a bathhouse on the summit of the tel does not rule out the identification of the Byzantine structure in its center as a monastery. The eastern part of the church, including the apse, was totally destroyed in the early twentieth century, when a building was constructed on the site.
No traces remain of other structures that may have been adjacent to the church. One of these was Misael, a bishop episkopos , and the other was Theodore, who served as a deacon, monk, and abbot of a nearby monastery. Thus the inscription explicitly mentions a monastery named after St. Elias the prophet Elijah. But was the church in which the inscription was found part of the monastery, or was the monastery located elsewhere?
The excavator found it difficult to answer this question. On the other hand, L. Di Segni is convinced that the church was not part of a monastery, principally because of the scenes and figures depicted on the mosaic pavement. In that case, however, the monastery of St. Elias headed by Theodore must have been nearby, since according to the inscription he and his monks took care of the church and conducted services in it.
Magen—the Church of St. Kyrikos Identification. A church or monastery of the fifth—sixth centuries in the western Negev. The site is about m northwest of Kibbutz Magen and some 22 km south of Gaza map ref. A deep well was found close to the site. About m north of the site is a Muslim tomb known as Sheikh Nuran Fig. For the Arabic names of the site, see Bagatti, Villaggi, pp. Di Segni raises the possibility that the monks who cared for the church at Kissufim came from the monastery of Zeno at Kefar Shearta. The church complex near Kibbutz Magen was excavated by V. Tzaferis in In addition to the central basilical church, a trapezoid church to its south and a chapel and a baptistery to its north were uncovered Fig.
In the mosaic floor of the trapezoid church was a dedicatory inscription in honor of St. Outside the church were found remains of walls and fragments of mosaics and marble stones. The excavators assumed that there was a large village at the site and that the church and its dependencies served the needs of the villagers.
Guide to Evagrius Ponticus: Bibliography
However, it was my impression during a visit to the site that the remains of walls may well be part of a monastic complex. The church of St. Kyrikos is one of the most beautiful sites of the Negev and, alas, one of the most neglected. Shellal Identification. A church of the sixth century in the valley of Nahal Besor. The site is located on the bank of Nahal Besor, about 21 km south of Gaza map ref. The ancient road between Gaza and Elusa runs not far from the site.
The richly decorated polychrome mosaic pavement of the church, which was discovered in , is now in Canberra, Australia. Because of the isolated location of the church, one may tentatively suggest that it may have been part of a monastic complex. One can conclude, then, that the number of monasteries in the intermediate circle—i. In fact, only two monasteries are 71 V. Trendall, The Shellal Mosaic, Canberra, , pp. Elias, about which we learn from the inscription in the church at Kissufim. In several ways the monastery uncovered near Khirbet Jemameh is typical of Gazan monasticism.
It is a relatively small coenobium m2 located in an agricultural landscape of rolling hills. About m from the monastery are the remains of the large Byzantine site of Khirbet Jemameh, after which the monastery is named. Only the wall foundations and mosaic pavements of the monastery were preserved. It was uncovered by chance during plowing, and we should assume that other monasteries still await discovery in the region of Gaza. The Outer Circle The outer circle, comprising monasteries more than 25 km from the city of Gaza, contains five monastic sites known to us from excavations and archaeological surveys.
These monasteries are situated in an arid desert landscape and may thus be considered part of the general phenomenon of desert monasteries. However, the sources reveal close connections between the monks of the Negev and those of the Gaza region. According to John Moschus, there was a laura in the region of Elusa. A coenobium of the fifth—sixth centuries.
The site is about 18 km east of Beersheva and some 60 km southeast of Gaza map ref. The monastic structure is at the southern end of the hill. The site was surveyed by Y. Govrin as part of the survey of the Nahal Yattir map. The total area of the monastery was some 1, m2. Within the site, to the north of the monastery, remains of walls from the early Roman period could be discerned, including a square tower 10 x 10 m surrounded by a stone glacis.
The builders of the monastery in the Byzantine period apparently reoccupied an abandoned site of the early Roman period, a phenomenon encountered at other sites, such as Masada and Hyrcania. Peter Identification. The site is about 18 km east of Beersheva and some 55 km southeast of Gaza map ref. The monastery is at the eastern end of the hill.
Beit Arieh. On the occupation by monks of desert fortresses from the Second Temple period, see Y. Hirschfeld, Judean Desert Monasteries, pp. For further details of the monastery, see B. In its eastern part is a large courtyard paved with limestone slabs, and in its center a cistern. The church complex to the east of the courtyard includes a chapel and six long rooms, arranged around an inner courtyard. The monastery was founded in the late fifth or early sixth century and existed until the Muslim conquest in the mid-seventh century. An inscription in the mosaic floor of the chapel relates that the place was dedicated to St.
If this is correct, the monastic complex was not isolated but was part of the nearby settlement. Tel Masos Identification. A coenobium of the sixth—seventh centuries. Tel Masos Arabic: Khirbet el-Mashash is located about 12 km east of Beersheva and some 55 km southeast of Gaza map ref. The site is on the north bank of Nahal Beersheva, and there are several wells in the vicinity.
The monastery, which was built over the remains of an Iron Age fortress, was uncovered in excavations directed by A. View Badges! Watch Send a Note Give. Featured All. Hello everyone! I was very busy and especially I didn't have a computer that allowed me to use MikuMikuDance properly.
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June 28 2 Comments 3 Favourites. I hope you're fine! I gently back on MMD with more effectively perform computer! Ah yes, I pass my exams in a week! June 2, 6 Comments 2 Favourites. So much cosplays I have a hard time with MMD now, small drop of inspiration. But I'll come back with a project in no time.
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I fucking dream to do a racing cosplay October 22, 6 Comments 1 Favourite. I got sick in the meantime in addition to my exams, I couldn't take care of properly, but that's ancient history! News of Me! Hope you're doing well! I am also now preparing a video for the Scarlet Devil Mansion group. April 18, 11 Comments 1 Favourite. If you follow me, you have always noticed that I love the swimsuit of Arlvit, and much more RaceQueen.
Pixiv: www. No Comments. I hope you are all well! I post this newspaper today because I need you! I am currently in the process of make a video that will be released December 9, , unfortunately I don't have time to finish some things to get the result I expect at least, I hope to achieve! So, I come to ask for your help to make you participate in this short video! I am looking to integrate multiple images in my video, each on each game Touhou so about sixteen pictures , so I called for help anyone with free time and having the desire to help.
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For those who follow me, I think you're aware of my collaborations with Pokie-Punk , we try to make the models of Koumajou Densetsu. We find this serie is not shown on MMD while Akira designs are great although they are quite difficult to make for some. What do you think? Do you find it useful or do you think a tumblr would be better? October 18, 6 Comments 3 Favourites. A new DL series Touhou Modeler? I saw that you had liked the Arlvit Series and I'm glad! I hope you will see more clearly about editing rules and all his models. For cons, I would like to get into another series linked to modelers.
Are what you are interested? Do you want a modeler in particular? October 17, 41 Comments 1 Favourite. Decreased activity! I am very tired and I have to rest up for success this year. Evagrius, Kephalaia gnostika : a new translation of the unreformed text from the Syriac by Evagrius 6 editions published in in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide Evagrius exerted a striking impact on the development of spirituality, of Origenism, and of the spiritual interpretation of the Bible in Greek, Syriac, and Latin Christianity.
This English translation of the most complete Syriac version of Kephalaia Gnostika makes Evagrius Ponticus's thoughts concerning reality, God, protology, eschatology, anthropology, and allegorical exegesis of Scripture widely available. Le gnostique, ou, A celui qui est devenu digne de la science by Evagrius Book 21 editions published between and in 3 languages and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide.
Talking back : a monastic handbook for combating demons by Evagrius Book 5 editions published in in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide How did the monks of the Egyptian desert fight against the demons that attacked them with tempting thoughts? How could Christians resist the thoughts of gluttony, fornication, or pride that assailed them and obstructed their contemplation of God? According to Evagrius of Pontus , one of the greatest spiritual directors of ancient monasticism, the monk should "talk back" to demons with relevant passages from the Bible. His book Talking Back Antirrhetikos lists over thoughts or circumstances in which the demon-fighting monk might find himself, along with the biblical passages with which the monk should respond.
It became one of the most popular books among the ascetics of Late Antiquity and the Byzantine East, but until now the entire text had not been translated into English. From Talking Back we gain a better understanding of Evagrius's eight primary demons: gluttony, fornication, love of money, sadness, anger, listlessness, vainglory, and pride. We can explore a central aspect of early monastic spirituality, and we get a glimpse of the temptations and anxieties that the first desert monks faced. Evagrius of Pontus : the Greek ascetic corpus by Evagrius Book 9 editions published between and in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide "Most of the surviving works of Evagrius of Pontus have been available in printed editions in the West for almost two centuries, but there is still no complete English translation for the entire corpus.
The present translation endeavours to provide an English version for the thirteen works of the Greek ascetic corpus, exclusive of the biblical scholia and the fragmentary Gnostikos. To assure a reasonably reliable textual basis for the translation, all the texts without critical editions have been collated against the principal manuscripts.
Detailed information on the textual basis of the translation and the complete Greek text of the long recension of the Eulogios are provided in the appendices. To assist the reader in the understanding and study of these texts, Robert E. Sinkewicz has provided a general introduction to the life of Evagrius and his ascetic doctrine as well as particular introductions to each of the works.