A former director of the intelligence demoted who threatened to vent disturbing secrets in a letter addressed to Jean Charest. They have been used over the years to pay money to informants or to rent premises to spy on criminals. Ex-executives Alfred Tremblay and Steven Chabot acknowledge having benefited from it, but deny any criminal intent in their use, just like the former managing director Richard Deschesnes, who authorized them.
The court has not yet ruled on this matter. The verdict is expected in the fall. Their testimonies, as well as the documents made public in this trial, shed light on the mechanics of these ultra-discretionary disbursements. Neither the Treasury Board, nor the Public Administration Commission, nor parliamentarians were aware of the nature of these expenditures, nor did they have access to the associated documents that supported them.
Even the accounting department of the SQ was not aware of it. Since May , the SQ did not even have to authorize the maximum level of secret expenses allowed. Since their inception in , DSOs have been used both to pay overtime to municipal police forces providing troops for the fight against bikers, and to purchase floppy disk boxes for the computer needs of a police officer. For example, the DSOs were used to purchase SQ-style pins for participants at an annual biker conference in , or to pay fees to the College of Psychologists for certain professionals, because the administration refused to reimburse SQ employees.
DSOs were also used to commission surveys conducted by a major marketing firm and to pay advisory fees for the transformation of heritage buildings, alarm system fees for dignitaries, and even for subscriptions to the daily newspapers La Presse and Le Soleil. This writing is at the heart of the evidence presented in court. It is part of a batch of letters containing a lot of information that Mr. At most, we were informed that the Department of Public Safety has since appointed an auditor to ensure better accountability.
Appointed director of investigations and security intelligence in , he had access to the most delicate secrets of the state. As such, it was he who investigated the probity of people approached for the judiciary or positions of senior officials. He learned of it on his return from sick leave. The reprimands that are made to him — internal tensions within his team, difficulties of management — are rather vague. Two shop stewards were sanctioned for these discrepancies. His mandate is vague. He complained that he had been left in an empty office, where he did not have access to a printer or a private telephone line.
In the following months, Tremblay protests his transfer and files a complaint for psychological harassment. Deschesnes wanted to prevent the case from being litigated, that many senior SQ officers would be called to testify in court. This is particularly true in Aboriginal communities where, by way of example, our undercover agents had purchased automatic weapons directly from certain suppliers inside the reserves, without any police intervention being carried out in the area.
These facts, he explained during the trial, go back to and At the trial, Alfred Tremblay explained that investigations of this kind were frequent, but will not provide more details. We answered, there were encrypted networks, there are special communications. So, that was it. The director at the time, Jocelyn Latulippe, obtained a legal opinion from an external firm which concluded that there was serious disciplinary misconduct.
Pasquier adds that Mr. Latulippe [has] checked [and informed me] that there is nothing criminal. As for the allegations made by Mr. Tremblay of willful blindness, infiltration and morally questionable acts, it is impossible to know whether they have been the subject of further examination. The last letter from Alfred Tremblay to Jean Charest, which was first sent to the staff, was never sent to the Premier. On November 25, , the Director of Internal Affairs informed Alfred Tremblay that his mailing would violate his oath of allegiance and discretion. In the days following this meeting, the two police officers negotiate and conclude a termination agreement for Alfred Tremblay.
The money will come from the secret operating expenses fund DSO. According to the Crown, Mr. Tremblay did not declare it to the tax department. In his argument, Mr. Without the vigilance of SQ accountant Denis Rivest and other police officers and civilian employees, traces of these agreements may never have been found. Suspecting that they were severance pay rather than secret expenses, the latter kept copies of the forms at home.
Only three people are there: the former director general Richard Deschesnes, who was fired the day before by the government, his administrative assistant and his bodyguard. The atmosphere is sad. Replaced without notice by Mario Laprise, Richard Deschesnes picked up his personal belongings earlier: photos, notes, medals he had received, plants, which he and his assistant put in brown boxes with the Quebec logo of the fleur de lis.
Administrative Assistant Danielle Bouchard is busy destroying a stack of documents that Richard Deschesnes has sorted out of his archives and given to him in a recycling bin. Locked electronically and monitored by an alarm system, it contains many ultra-confidential documents. Only the DG and she have the code to access it. But Ms. Bouchard does not witness what happens there.
The bodyguard is also put to use. Neither the bodyguard nor the assistant have detailed memories of the documents they destroyed during the evening. They have never been found there. With guaranteed job security up to age 65, a dozen of them have negotiated very specific clauses over the years before agreeing to retire.
One of the 12 examples cited during the trial is that of former Director General Normand Proulx. During this period, Mr. Proulx was to help establish Francopol, an international network of French-language police training, as a special advisor. Deschesnes said he had said so at the time to the deputy minister responsible for senior government jobs. A draft agreement in evidence suggests that he tried to maintain his employment relationship for 19 months after leaving, as well as his month CEO salary, says the Crown. Deschesnes intended to mention in his draft letter that he contested his dismissal as illegal.
Son mandat est flou. Selon la Couronne, M. Dans sa plaidoirie, M. Il se fait tard, le 10 octobre Devant le refus de Mario Laprise de lui accorder ces avantages, M. On June 19th, the man asked her out on a date. Codina-Leva left her three children in the charge of her brother, then departed her Verdun apartment.
Before leaving she wrote the name and phone number of the traveling salesman on a piece of paper: Serge Archambault. Anna-Maria disappeared that evening. Montreal Urban Community police investigators questioned Archambault about the disappearance, but they concluded Archambault had never seen Codina-Leva on the evening in question. In the first media filings it is revealed that Archambault worked as a traveling salesman, and I believe he worked for a company called H.
Belanger Plumbing Ltd. Now the fact that he was possibly a plumbing salesman may bear some significance later. The year-old Archambeault — a twice-married father of two living with his second wife in St. Eustache, northwest off the island of Montreal — is charged with the slayings of Chantale Briere, 24, found strangled in her house in Deux Montagnes in late November , and Rolande Asselin-Beaucage, 47, shot dead in her home in Ste.
Calixte, January 6th, Archambault leads police to a wooded area in St. Hubert near the intersections of Moise Vincent and Mariecourt streets. There they find bones scattered in the woods. The bones are sent to the medical laboratory for further analysis. Police confirm that they drew up a psychological profile of the suspect as part of their investigation. Police play up the amount of detective work it took to crack the case, but the real break came from the careless actions of Archambault. On November 30th, Serge Archambault is charged with the first-degree murders of all three women.
The assessment is to determine if Archambault is mentally fit to stand trial. Surete du Quebec police are still waiting for the results from analysis on the bones recovered from St. They continue to be evasive:. The father of Anna Maria, Rosendo Codina reveals that in police told him Archambault had an alibi:.
On December 1st, Montreal police finally confirm that they did in fact question Serge Archambault about the disappearance of Anna Maria Codina-Leva, but quickly punt the matter to the provincial police:. In any event, Quintal states, the case is now in the hands of the Surete du Quebec. The family of Codina-Leva were not the only ones sounding the alarm about Serge Archambault. Paul-Andre Lafleur, assistant director of the Pinel psychiatric institute comes forward to disclose that in Archambault checked himself into the Pinel institute and remained there for 30 months after attacking a woman with a crowbar to her face.
On December 12th the Pinel institute rules that Archambault is mentally fit to stand trial.
Police also reveal that the bones recovered in the St. Hubert wooded area — including a skull — are the remains of Anna Maria Codina-Leva. La Presse reports that after his arrest police found in his home a list of three houses for sale in the St. Eustache neighborhood where Archambault lived, along with a box of jewelry and underwear not belonging to his wife. Police now begin to investigated Archambault in the unsolved murders of other women including Louise Blanc-Poupart, raped and stabbed 17 times in at her home in Ste Adele, Pauline Laplante, sexually assaulted and stabbed in in Piedmont, Johanne Beaudoin murdered in her Mount-Royal home in , and the murders of Danielle Laplante and Claire Samson, murdered in a boutique in Outremont, also in At the close of the year, December 31, , in a lengthy piece in Le Devoir, Rollande Parent reveals that the Surete du Quebec have added to the list of suspected murders the names of Marie Claude Cote, a Breboeuf college student who disappeared from club Barina in October , and year-old Chantal Brochu who was strangled in Outremont in September He breaks down at the sight of articles of clothing belonging to his wife he is asked to identify.
He recalls kissing his wife Chantal goodbye at a. When she tried calling back at p. Chantal was lying on her stomach, naked from the waist down, with her hands tied behind her back. Pathologist Jean Hould testifies that Briere died of asphyxiation from swallowing her tongue. A sock had been shoved in her mouth and was held there by a bra tied around her neck. He ankles and wrists were tied with electrical cords.
At the end of the first week of the trial, police reveal statements given by Archambault when first taken into custody. He confessed that he killed and mutilated three woman to get back at an aunt who sexually molested him as a child:. She put her fingers in my rectum. In his confession of the murder of Chantal Briere, Archambault said that on the pretext of wanting to buy the house, he made his way into the home and hit her on the head from behind with the back of an ax. He then retrained her with electrical cords. The murder of year-old St.
Calixte resident Rollande Asselin was a crime of opportunity. Archambault was driving around the Laurentians when he saw Asselin in her front yard at Montee Mongeau. He asked for directions and a glass of water. Once inside a similar scenario unfolded. He tied her wrists and ankles with electrical cord, then shot her in the back of the head.
After she was dead Archambault mutilated her body with a knife. In the case of Anna Maria Codova-Leva, Archambault said that they worked together in Pointe aux Trembles and that he was paying her to sleep with him. In late November , almost a year since his arrest, Serge Archambault is found guilty on three counts of first-degree murder, and sentenced to a 25 year life sentence without the possibility of parole.
After the trial it is revealed that Archambault kept a rape kit in his car consisting of knives, a rope and sometimes a loaded shotgun. His first known intended assault may have been as early as when he visited a woman in Quebec City with the intention of killing and dismembering her. Instead, he hit her on the head with a hammer, then fled in panic when she began screaming.
Police also disclose that Archambault is now being considered as a suspect in the murder and dismemberment of year-old Valerie Dalpe. On that post someone named Ariane, claiming to be the daughter of Serge Archambault wrote the following:. As it turned out, Archambault was not responsible for the deaths of Danielle Laplante and Claire Samson, murdered in that boutique in Outremont.
In Agostino Ferreira is charged with these slayings, and the rape of two other women in his East Ontario street apartment. Ferreira kidnapped the two women from a boutique on St. Denis St. They were taken by taxi to an apartment on Ontario St. Ferreira was later faced with 17 additional charges stemming from incidents alleged to have occurred in Montreal clothing boutiques from to When the cases eventually came to trial late in Ferreira did cross-examine his own rape victims.
Starring straight ahead and answering in a low monotone voice the woman described how she and a colleague were abducted by a man in a long, black leather coat who claimed he was suicidal. He showed them an object which he claimed was a bomb and said that the detonator was in a small box attached to his shoulder. Forced into the taxi, the women were taken to an apartment at Ontario and Berri where the man dictated a suicide note. At one point he went to a closet and brought out a gun which he waved at them while talking. After taping their ankles and wrists together he used a carving knife to cut the clothes off their bodies.
Starting at about 2 p. He injected himself with three syringes he said contained cocaine. Ferreira then decided to go out and get more. After he left, the women, who were no longer restrained, left the apartment, flagged down a taxi and went to a nearby police station.
Throughout the trial Ferreira would only refer to himself in the third person testifying of pentagrams, crucifixes, mauve auras and telekinesis:. Ferreira stood trial and was found guilty for assault, rape, kidnapping, confinement , attempted murder and armed robbery.
Before trail commenced for the two boutique murders of Samson and Laplante, Ferreira surprised everyone and pleaded guilty saying he recognized his guilt and that he regretted killing the two clerks. Ferreira was declared a dangerous offender and jailed indefinitely, the first person in Quebec to receive the designation.
The dangerous offender provision was adopted in Canada in By there were dangerous offenders in Canada, but only a handful in Quebec. Experts said that was likely to change. They allowed me to reactivate my fantasies, I found that exciting. Dupuy himself suggested he should receive the dangerous offender designation because he felt he posed a significant threat to society. In theory, the dangerous offender label is supposed to mean the offender will never be let out of prison. Of the in , 10 have been set free for good. There is one other case I will mention, because I believe it to be largely forgotten and the M.
Her parents last saw her on March 7th when she came to their St. Sauveur home and shot some pool for her 19th birthday. Linda was found in May. Her face was so badly disfigured it took until August to positively identify her through dental records, and a distinctive horseshoe-shaped ring she wore. Police believed Linda was murdered elsewhere, then taken to the spot on Mount Royal.
A trail of dropped items — a cigarette, a shoe, a comb — lead police to believe the the offender wanted her to be found, and that it was someone she knew. Initially police said that Linda was not raped, though police said the offender tried to make it look that way. She was naked from the waist down, but was beaten and murdered, not sexually assaulted. A stocking had been stuffed in her mouth. A year after her unsolved murder, police changed the story. Now they said Linda had choked to death on the pantyhose after being raped and beaten about the head, possibly with a rock. The assailant stuffing the undergarments in her mouth to silence her.
Police believed now that Linda was dragged into the bushes on Mount Royal from an automobile. In the summer of , friends Jocelyne Beaudoin and Renee Lessard planned a glorious camping excursion. The two would set out from their homes in Montreal to explore the north shore region of the Saguenay. Their means of transportation was the thumb, they would hitchhike. At the mouth of the Saguenay river at Tadoussac they would turn inland, following the river into the interior of Quebec.
On July 7th, — six years to the day that the parents of Margaret Coleman received her last postcard — Renee Lessard sent postcards to her parents and grandparents. There last sighting was on July 10th at a campground at Saint-Felicien, along Lac Saint Jean, where the Saguenay river comes to an end. It would be over a month before the newspapers picked up the story.
Felicien, miles northwest of Quebec City. Renee and Jocelyne had known each other for two years, and were described as inseparable. Renee was older, and had a degree in education. She lived in an apartment not far from her parents. She had a boyfriend named Yvon Charest. Sprint was a quiz show in which young people had to answer questions about the Olympics — recall that the summer games were held in Montreal in Their prize was an all-expenses paid trip to Greece.
Jocelyne lived with her brother, Claude. On weekends she worked at the Simpsons department store in downtown Montreal. She was saving money for college. In late August the Saguenay paper, Progres-Dimanche made one of the first accounts of the missing travelers. They reported that Joceylyne and Renee had exemplary reputations, and everyone the paper talked to that knew them were unanimous on this subject.
Despite this, Progres-Dimanche planted seeds of doubt. The newspaper suggested they could have been runaways. Or maybe they wandered into the woods and got eaten by a wild animal. They were hitchhikers? If yes, why are there no signs of them? If they are dead, what happened, and where are the bodies? While everyone did nothing, Charest rented a small airplane — twice — and began to search the rugged interior of the Saguenay region. He found nothing. On August 29th, it is reported that Jocelyne and Renee had been spotted in a restaurant at Hebertville-Station one week after the campground siting at Saint Felicien.
Jean Fortin — chef and owner of Chez Loulou — says he saw the two girls in his establishment around July 17th, drinking coffee and writing postcards. He describes camping equipment that matched the description of equipment the two girls were carrying. They tell him they are hitchhiking through the region, and ask where they may find a post office to send the postcards to their parents. The siting seems credible because it is consistent with their travel plans. Everything had been mapped to the last detail.
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Alma is near where the Saguenay ends, and Lac Saint Jean begins. It is the last point to cross the Sanguenay if you want to visit the North shore of Lac Saint Jean, which they did. From here they headed for the very far reaches of the Lake, through Mistassini, Dolbeau to Saint Felicien, where they were sighted on July 10th at the campground. Once at the back of the Lake, the rounded back along the southwest edges through Roberval and Val-Jalbert.
The plan was to end the vacation around July 20th. They would return to Montreal via La Toque, along an inland route that follows highway Jocelyne had tickets to attend the Junior Olympics in Montreal in late July. The siting at Hebertville Station around July 17th is at the right place, at the right time; between the previous last siting at Saint Felicien and their intended destination, home in Montreal via La Tuque. They would have four days to get to that final destination, a reasonable amount of time. Although Jocelyne and Renee were reported missing in early August, it took the Surete du Quebec until August 31st to broadcast a press release requesting public assistance.
On September 5, police announce that they will organize a search party to find the two missing women. The affaire is under the command of caporal Yvon Martel of the Chicoutimi detachment of the Surete du Quebec. One of the objectives of his trip was to verify the usage of the travelers cheques the two girls had with them. Now Martel was back in the Saguenay with instructions to find the two missing Montrealers. The date and location is consistent with what is known, or thought to have been known, but it has them moving in the wrong direction, backward toward Mistassini.
A waitress, Johanne Girard states that she also saw the two girls writing postcards at the restaurant around July 20th. Despite now having two witnesses corroborating the sighting at Hebertville Station, caporal Martel decides to focus his search around the Saint Felicien — Mistassini area, where just one motorist claimed to have seen them, and at an earlier date and an early geographic point on their itinerary. Martel enlists the assistance of the public, local radio stations and a local hand-radio club to assist in his efforts. At the Beaudoin home, a heartbroken mother and father await the harmful news that their child has departed this world.
Rene Lessard states that he would like to aid in the search, but he cannot leave his home where he must attend to his ailing wife, and year-old son. Maybe Renee was seen for the last time at Mistassini or perhaps Peribonka. I hope the police find my girl. I understand the police, who at first, thought they were dealing with a simple matter of a runaway. But we insisted for a long time to the authorities to understand that these two girls were not the kind to runaway.
We are simple people without the means to move the powers that be. One thing is certain, if I was a government minister, the army and all their resources would have been called in to assist in this matter… I call on the deputy minister, Marcel Leger to demand in the National Assembly to send the army into the Mistassini sector to assist in the search. In the same edition, Progres-Dimanche runs a small article where the Surete du Quebec tries to assure the public they are not abandoning the case:.
Under the direction of caporal Yvon Martel, more than square miles were covered, but nothing was found, no new indication to point the way. For our next searches, the representatives of the SQ cannot specify what kind of work will be undertaken. We want to emphasize that our research has not been abandoned! In early October , Quebec police disclose that they now believe Beaudoin and Lessard had left the Chicoutimi — Saguenay region by July 12th, putting the sighting by the Saint Felicien — Mistassini motorist in question, and rendering their search of that region in early September a pointless effort.
Yvon Martel now states that the travelers cheques the girls had been carrying — the cheques Martel traveled to Montreal to verify had not been used since July 4th — had, in fact, been exchanged in Riviere-du-Loup on July 12th, a day after the last sighting at the St. Felicien campground. The Surete du Quebec go on to state that the sightings in Heberville Station at the restaurant Chez LouLou were most likely false memories.
Caporal Yvon Martel states that if further verification prove correct the case is no longer his responsibility and all search efforts in the Chicoutimi detachment region will be abandoned. Jaques Le Mineur, 20 miles south of Montreal. Police believe Jocelyne Beaudoin, 20, of St. Donat St. The badly decomposed body has been sent to the Quebec Medico-Legal Institute where pathologists will try to establish the cause and time of death.
Investigators fear that Lessard was also slain as she was traveling with Beaudoin…. Her traveling companion Margaret Jones, then 20, also of California, spent several weeks in hospital recovering from a concussion and other injuries after being pushed from a moving car. On October 10th, the Surete du Quebec publishes a second notice reassuring the public they are not abandoning the case:. I do know, when you want a straight answer, you go to Allo Police. The woods where Beaudoin was found were next to a hunting or gun club.
They were skeletal remains and Beaudoin was fully clothed. Quebec summers can be brutal.
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In July , Johanne Dorion had been left outdoors for less than two weeks, and there was nothing left of her either. She was wearing the shirt seen in the last photo of her taken with Renee by some tourists on a ferry crossing to Riviere du Loup. This is how police were quickly able to make a positive identification. I have seen the crime scene photos.
Jocelyne was shot in the back of the head, right behind the left ear. Professional… execution style.
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More and more, the police believed that Jocelyne Beaudoin — and most likely her friend, Renee Lessard, still missing — were murdered by bikers. Where Allo Police speculated it, by January the police were publicly disclosing it in the local papers:. Police reveal that bikers were in that area that summer attending an event in the Gaspe region, just east of Rivieres du Loup.
As well, witnesses described seeing two young women matching the description of Beaudoin and Lessard in the company of these bikers, but could not make positive identification. What no one could explain was what Beaudoin and Lessard were doing in Riviere du Loup in the first place; a town not on their planned itinerary, and on the other side of the Saint Lawrence river, the only bridge crossing two hours south at Quebec City, or a ferry ride across from the north to the south shore.
A photo taken by tourists confirm that Jocelyne and Renee took that ferry to Riviere du Loup — the last photo ever taken of them — but why they deviated from their plan? No one can say. Nevertheless, Quebec police were firm in their belief that the two young girls were in Riviere du Loup at that time, and that they used their travelers cheques to stay there in a local motel. The proprietor of the motel later stated that they checked in around pm the evening of July 13th.
Police also speculated in the newspapers that it was possible the two girls were brought to the motel by the ferry, against their will by bikers. If this is so, then why did the tourists who took the photograph not call attention to what would have been an unsettling passage? In the photo, Jocelyne and Renee appear to be just average travelers, nothing seems out of the ordinary.
Ten years after the gruesome events of the summer of , Allo Police publishes an anniversary article:. I do not want them to kill others. I want to know — finally — what happened. Did she suffer? I know nothing of these affaires except what I read in the newspapers at that time. If in that time the murderer had been caught, I would have bought a gun on rue Saint Laurent and shot him down in plain sight. Now I just want to know what happened. In the article — 10 years after the affairs of that summer — Allo Police reports that the remains of Renee Lessard still have not been found.
In May of — nearly 43 years since the events of that summer — the Surete du Quebec lists the cases of Jocelyne Beaudoin and Renee Lessard on their cold case website as unsolved murders. They also report that the two girls were not reported missing until August 2, Some clothes were found. The bones were scattered over a rather large area, having likely been moved by animals. No jewelry or ID was found. The young woman was not formally identified until June If the remains were not identified until , then when were the remains recovered?
Up until a few years ago, people were still discussing Renee Lessard as a missing person on message boards. So I contacted the Surete du Quebec and asked them about this.
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I also asked them where Parc Verendrye is, because there is actually a a small Verendrye Park in Montreal along the Lachine canal, doubtful Lessard was found here, but I wanted to be sure. The SQ confirmed that the Verendrye parc in question was the wildlife preserve kilometers northwest of Montreal, but they ignored my question about when the remains were found. The young boy was playing with some rocks when he found some bones. The father recovered the bones and gave them to investigators from the Surete du Quebec. They will be sent to the Parthenais laboratory to determine if they are human remains.
How many sets of remains could possibly recovered in a remote region such as Parc Verendrye? Une formule Date de parution: Pour le savoir, lisez le tome 8! Au fil des pages de ce beau toutes. Mais cette carte existe-t-elle vraiment? La rapportent son amulette magique.
Qui tombera dans le puits? Qui se perdra dans le labyrinthe? Et, finalement, qui gagnera sain et sauf la case 63? Les spationautes partent pour un grand voyage. Quels sont leurs pouvoirs? Pour les enfants Date de parution: Almaniak propose chaque jour une bonne nouvelle qui prouve que Date de parution: Nouvelles questions pour Alors Date de parution: Petit format, petit prix!
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Kennedy, 12 septembre juillet Then he takes this horror and weaves it into the troubled love of two admirable Nineteenth-Century French Studies 41, Nos. While they live for nothing but one further night, we all under- stand that their commitment to each other is eternal. Although the monographs dealing with these issues are legion, good summa- ries are to be found in Chartier or Doyle.
Ne ty 7. Marcel Bouteron, et al. Origins of the French Revolution. Ne ty Heathcote, Owen. Nineteenth-Century French Studies 41, Nos. The Saint-Simoniste Suzanne Voilquin was particularly enthusias- ive tic. It played across France and in Germany, was parodied onstage and in print, was transformed into a novel by the English writer G. Reynolds, and was translated into multiple languages. The first scenes of the play, set in the high summer of , find him at a hotel in the Pyrenees with his mistress, Ernestine de Rieux, whose hus- band was a prominent member of the court of Charles X.
The trois glorieus- s es having sent both the monarch and the Marquis de Rieux into exile, Al- res fred decides to break with Ernestine and to rebuild his shattered fortunes via a new sexual alliance. He dumps the sk daughter for the mother and departs for Paris. Like many of his theatrical peers in a context where a play could be suspended for causing public disorder Vielledent , Dumas was political- ly circumspect.
Most painful to him, how- ever, is the fact that his carefully hoarded social capital, the friends and allies gained for him by his sexual conquests, is now depleted. A king placed upon his throne by popular uprising rather than by heredity depends painfully the upon social credit for legitimacy. So, by extension, will those among his sub- sk jects who seek advancement in this demanding new context. In return, the widowed Comtesse de Gaston seeks the in- creased capital as well as the personal pleasure associated with marriage to a rising public man.
From the image of the machine he passes to that of infec- ive tion: Et je vous remercie. Manners can take a man only so far. Manners establish connections between these characters, but affect cements them. Henri Muller, conversely, belongs to a Romantic tradition of idealistic and ive melancholic young men whose characteristics clash with the realist priorities many critics now take for granted. He recalls not only the bon jeune homme and the justicier figures of high melodrama the quintessential defenders of Un right against power , but also the heroes of sentimental fiction.
He did so because his deeply felt pain and devotion transmitted themselves directly to the audience in an effect similar to that of the emotional brush Un fire Dumas had observed during the July Revolution. The audience had no choice but to feel with Muller, such violent verbs implied—and having felt with him, they took him to themselves. In the Romantic theatrical marketplace, affective capital proved the most powerful social capital of all.
Almost a century later, W. In his biog- raphy of Dumas, F. Critics of all parties appropriated Henri Muller and his affective capital to ive support their own perspectives on the past and future of French society. In the process, these spectators strove to solidify their positions within the con- tested post-revolutionary public sphere.
Un Dumas provided the context for such debates by creating in Henri Muller a figure whose pathos doubled as social subtext. Yet this very dedication to virtue opened the play to political readings that opposed as well as bolstered the July regime. For its reviewer, the play depicted Alfred not as a throwback but as a typical citi- zen of the July Monarchy: For the leftist, this moral triumph was bound up not with nostalgia for the past but with hope for the future. Henri, on the other hand, epitomized the new man of a better future.
Unlike Fortoul, Voilquin saw no contradiction between revolutionary dis- Un courses of justice and equality and the affective discourses of sentimentality. For Voilquin, aP this would be the most revolutionary outcome of all. Ne ty Its full dramaturgical vocabulary, in which dry-eyed social critique rubs shoulders with tearful pathos, has received little attention. Indeed, pathos and sentiment struck its spectators as the rsi elements in the play that most directly worked to foster change.
Department of Theatre Dalhousie University Notes 1. For a print parody of the play, see Roberge; for a theatri- cal parody, see Dumersan. Reynolds plagiarized the play extensively in his novel The Youthful Imposter. For a history of theories of affect and of the processes by which it may be passed from one physiology to the next through social interaction, see Brennan 1— Handbook of Theo- ry and Research for the Philosophy of Education. The Transmission of Affect. The Sentimental Education of the Novel. The King of Romance. A Study of French Romantic Drama. Au Magasin Theatral, To enter fully into the lyrical sk lineage of Ronsard, Petrarch and Orpheus, Nerval first had to experience the dispossession of , where firsthand knowledge of the failures of poetic bra transcendence allow the romantic ironist to recreate mimetically in his verse by both disillusionment and the Orphic experience.
Adopted by Nerval, the ironic quip fur- nished the romantic poet as well with a means to distance himself from Ron- sard and his own pre verse production. To his imagined interlocu- s tor, Nerval abashedly agrees to make his early verse and prejudices known: In other words, only with ironic distance, poetic maturity, and the experience of dispossession that accompanied was Nerval prepared to adopt the Nineteenth-Century French Studies 41, Nos.
In essence, the rehabilitation of Ronsard is a formal signal of a larger-scale return to a historical past; Nerval overcomes his early resistance, but in com- plicated ways. Given time and the experience of failure, his initial dread of pastiche gives way to singular poetic creation in ways that mimic past forms of mimesis most notably those of the Renaissance.
Romantic Irony and Nerval and Dispossession bra by Given his erudition as a once-aspiring Renaissance scholar paired alongside his familiarity with the lyrical tradition, a lesson Nerval was uniquely posi- tioned to learn was that disillusionment and its expression in verse was not a Ne ty nineteenth-century invention. The function of the lyric has been, from its origins, founded in a relationship of subjective presence beckoning to a desired absence: Only after the experience of dispossession in res does he reflect on the poetic vocation and elect to take up the Orphic lyre.
In fact, the decision to do so is represented as a pis-aller by his alter ego narra- tor in Sylvie: Regardless, never is the mimetic representation of irony-as-salvation better the sk achieved than when Nerval, as romantic ironist, occupies the ivory tower. Using poetics against poetry in order to recreate symbolically its failures is the posture adopted by the post romantic ironist. Il est pour une France paisible [. Even if less radical, Nerval re- mains perhaps the most personally affected by the failed hopes of For Nerval, this failure was far more aes- thetic than ethical or political.
Scott would expand on this idea: The revival of the nineteenth-century French sonnet did not coincide aP with the great revival of nineteenth-century French poetry by the ro- mantics of the early s. The reasons for this are fairly easy to see. The greater rhythmic flexibility that Lamartine, Hugo and Vi- by gny sought [. However, the historical distance and the ultimate dispossession of —following a respectable career as a journalist, theatre critic, transla- tor, and novelist—offered the mature Nerval an opportunity to reconsider rsi his poetic progeniture.
At what point does Nerval cast aside his youthful prejudices and anxi- Un eties? For the post Nerval, the process of becoming a romantic ironist evolves from a period of despondency and a quest for significance that ultimately crystallizes into a historically specific imitation of sixteenth-century lyrical models. Appropriating the Orphic lyre and exploiting the formal, lyrical perfection of the sonnet against itself, Nerval ultimately achieves the anti-apotheosis in verse that allows him to best represent the plight of the Ne ty generation of Renaissance Imitatio and the Sonnet: As the poet appeals to his dearly beloved through an ive imperative speech act, his petition is inevitably and perpetually denied, fur- ther fueling his passion in both senses of the term: The rhetorical constraints of the Petrarchan sonnet allow for this exchange Un to occur and achieve a form of resolution—albeit always negative—in the most parsimonious way, in the space of fourteen lines.
As such, the sonnet becomes ritualistic and repeatable: Not only does this fi xed poetic form minimize the suffering of the lyrical subject, its formal elements are also rhetorically concise, rhythmi- cally memorable, and bear a discernible trace of the poetic dilemma. With the standard symmetry of the dually repetitive stanzaic pair of embraced quatrains, which begin the structure a typical ottavo in Italian: Symmetry or illusory reciprocity is, therefore, aP sacrificed to bring a momentary end to the lyrical suffering of the poet, who is left perpetually unfulfilled.
With dispossession a dominant theme for the the mature Nerval, the sonnet would prove an ideal form for representing the ro- sk mantic illusions that ultimately evaporate as ephemeral chimeras are wont to do leaving space only for the romantic ironist to recount agonizingly his bra loss in verse. In the twenty-five years that separate him from his ini- ty tial involvement with Ronsard, he evolves from what Thomas Greene terms reproductive or sacramental imitation 38 to a culturally specific dialectical of form Dismissal of those we admire and imitate, however, is certainly not unique to Nerval.
Early in his experience with the Petrarchan sonnet, Ronsard also adopted a telling ambivalence toward Petrarch, whom he mini- Un mized in these terms: However, for the enlightened few who complete the process of becoming Orpheus, such anxieties evaporate and cultural specificity ultimately shines through.
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Nerval had to exercise patience in allowing this process to come to fruition: Having experienced the dispossession of , the mature Nerval no longer needs to reduce his lyrical forebear to a formulaic Hellenist; he is prepared to ronsardiser, to adopt the sonnet and adapt it to his poetic needs. Simultaneously accepting and rejecting the lyrical pose, in dialectical imitation of Petrarch and Ronsard, Nerval em- Un ploys the sonnet to recreate mimetically both the non-transcendence of verse and the futility of the Orphic enterprise.
In order to make my analysis easier to follow, I reproduce the sonnet below with rhyme schemes and Italian terminology: Rath- Robert J. At the volta, follow- ing a series of symbols of disenfranchisement, the lyrical subject pauses to reconsider his weakened ontological position; and, rather than affirming his place in the decaying ivory tower, the poet inverts the phrase to cast doubt and indicate that his position has been compromised: With this new understanding, Nerval created a sonnet whose structure initially teems with the thematics of the bra inaccessibility of the desired object, allows the possibility of evoking the sa- by cred, desired image and ultimately and ironically witnesses its dissolution in a minimal poetic scene, using a proven lyrical form in individually specific Ne ty dialectical ways.
Typically, embraced rhymes within a stanza suggest an enclosed premise or a self-sustained idea, even protection as in the physical embrace. On the contrary, crossed rhymes intimate conflict, confrontation, and dis- rsi agreement; their point-counterpoint exchange ABAB presents such stanzas with an unresolved dialectic rather than a holistic harmony. Moving beyond ive the conflicted ottava into the conclusive strambotto at the volta pause, Nerval once again deviates from regular sonnet practice.
This enclosed, embraced rhyme suggests a final sense of unity, perhaps founded in the acknowledgment of dispossession, as the poet poses questions that appeal to the universal experience of all lyrical sub- jects. In an ultimate realization of the subjective futility of the lyrical pose, the poet decisively assumes the role of Orpheus and propels his sonnet to its aesthetically triumphant conclusion with a resounding couplet EE, vv.
Likewise, a stricken tower bears certain obvious phallic properties indicative of disinheritance; sexual impotence was, after all, a highly effective trope for loss of political power in nineteenth-century Ne ty France. Next, he asks for the allegorical flower fleur that so pleased his desolate heart to reunite, at the site of the Italian trellis, the bacchanalian grape with Robert J. However, here, in the second stanza as in post France , echoing the effect of the crossed rhyme scheme, sa- cred and profane are now at odds and provide the conflictual relationship that the poet imperatively asks be undone, driving the sonnet forward to its teleologically prescribed conclusion.
Or is he, instead, the Renaissance Duke of Biron, who was beheaded for conspira- aP cy and whose relationship with poetess Marie de Loges, nicknamed Uranie, the tenth muse, brought pagan tropes to the sober Protestant court of Henry the IV? Then again, dispossessed as he is, is he in fact, none of these?
As lyrical sk mouthpiece of dispossession, does he not embody all similar plights? Lines 10—11 in this same stanza offer further proof of his encounters with sacred bra and profane: This emblematic action of descending into Hades resonates with the poetic undertaking of of writing lyrical verse: Conclusion Ultimately illuminated in his perpetual dispossession, the crestfallen Ner- val finally came to an acceptance that he had much more in common with Ronsard—both poetically and experientially—than he had originally pre- s sumed.
With necessary ironic distance, servile imitation is transformed into res meaningful, individual lyrical production. Be it in war, isolation, or mad- ness, the greatest poetry often emerges from social and personal conflict that aP the poet aims to represent in verse. Ronsard, like Petrarch before him, had loved as a lyrical subject without knowing love and found himself dispos- sessed of both self and patria, in his case by the French Wars of Religion. Irony, the failure of will to bra by produce desires, is something the poet understands intimately, on a human level.
Once Nerval acknowledged this, he forged a way to configure the son- Ne net to his needs to deny belief in transcendence: His Laura was long deceased, his Cassandre decidedly inaccessible, his lyre marked with constellations of oth- ers who had beckoned and failed before him. Mimetically changed by human and poetic experience, Nerval modulated his memorable verses on the constellated lyre and, in his sonnets, recreated dispossession, his modus rsi operandi; for its part, the lyric—as genre—was forever transformed.
Whenever another critical edition is cited, I will indicate the editor. See Bloom for the former and Girard for the latter. Only at the end of his life did Nerval realize that authenticity can be derived rsi from adapting pre-existing models. In a modern gesture to be explained in the body of the text , Nerval does not subscribe to these conventions.
In his masterpiece on imitatio in Renaissance verse The Light in Troy, Greene develops a theory of mimesis from Petrarch to Milton that accounts for varying le- s vels of poetic imitation: Nerval and Baudelaire , on the other hand, readily adapt proven forms with significant alterations, i.
This is also true of the chief voices of Post-Romanticism, Flaubert and rsi Baudelaire. Geninasca upholds line 9 as the decisive moment of the poem 61—63 and Ju- den offers a rich commentary on the mystical symbolism and the marriage of sacred and profane in this tercet pair — See also Geninasca 91— The Anxiety of Influence: A Theory of Poetry. Jean- by Charles Monferran. Irony, Resentment, and Other Mimetic Structures.